1st JULY 1916: FONQUEVILLERS CHURCH CRYPT: FIRST FIELD DRESSING STATION.

J. V. WILSON, CHAPLAIN TO THE FORCES, 1/6th SOUTH STAFFS, FIRST FIELD DRESSING STATION FONQUEVILLERS CHURCH CRYPT: PLAIN POSTCARD (FPO) to A. HIBBETT Esq, Education Officer, Town Hall, Walsall, Staffs, England. (Posted 3rd July).

                                                                                     July 1st 1916.

I have just seen your son Bertie in Hospital (1). He is wounded in the right wrist, but otherwise is alright & I think you needn’t worry about him. He is being sent on to another Hospital so don’t write till you hear from him.

He just saw Sidney for a few moments this morning. He was alright.  I hope you will have Bertie back soon.

J. V. Wilson C.F. 1/ 6 South Staffs.

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MY MEMORIES OF THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME: 1967.

The Revd. Arthur H. Hibbett.
The Revd. Arthur H. Hibbett. 1960s.

‘The Men of the North Midland Division of Territorials did not turn their backs on the enemy. On a large board, posted against a wall of the ruined Church at Fonquevillers, was printed in large letters: ‘TO BERLIN – UP TRAFFIC ONLY’.

Up Traffic Only Fonqu
Fonquevillers Church. Up Traffic Only. Pen & ink sketch. Arthur H. Hibbett. 1918?

‘The climax of my war experience came on the first of July, 1916, when the Battle of The Somme began in earnest.  We learnt later that the whole of the British Army was to advance that day (2).The ‘Mad Staffords’ of the 46th Division went forward to capture Gommecourt.

The first of July 1916 was a bright, sunny day.  We had been allowed to buy biscuits in Fonquevillers village at the back of the lines.  I bought some, calledPetit Beurre‘, and they came in usefulWhenever we buy them now they always remind me of the time I was waiting to go Over the Top’.

We had been waiting in our trenches, facing the Germans, for many weeks before the Charge. During that time I was detailed off to do an official drawing of the German Front Line, showing Gommecourt Village and Wood with the Sunken Road beyond, the German enfilade trench and with all the trees as exact as I could.  This was my small contribution in preparation for the ‘Big Push’. I had the use of a periscope, and was disguised as a sandbag in case I had to look over the top of the trench to see the formation of the trees and the trenches more clearly (3).

Illustration for 'Sniper Atkins' doggerel by Arthur H. Hibbett May/Ju ne 1916.
Illustration for ‘Sniper Atkins’ doggerel by Arthur H. Hibbett. May/ Ju ne 1916.

It was while I was making this sketch that I was amazed to see some very old German soldiers, with long white beards, using mechanical excavators in their front line, and making great loads of earth fly up in the air.

I also spotted a dead cow’s head, which I presumed was used as a German sniper’s post. I feel pretty sure that it was from there that our parapet was peppered with German bullets whenever I attempted to put up my periscope.  “Keep away from Hibbett and his periscope !” was the general cry.

What terrified me more than the enemy shells and bullets was the sight of our men allowed to drink over much. It was a mistake to have given our men leave to drink alcohol before the Big Push. Some of them, delirious with too much to drink, were throwing mud at each other and I was afraid that they would throw mud at meIt was sights such as these that have made me keep off beer ever since.

Leicester Regt badge
Royal Leicester Regt. Tiger Badge.

I got wounded on that day. I was going forward in the trenches towards the front lines.  A Leicester runner, hastening to deliver an urgent message, his voice competing with the noise of gun-fire, came shouting from the rear: “Bend your backs, me lads! Bend your backs!  The Tiger’s face doesn’t turn away from the enemy!” (4).

Sap-Trench.
Sap-Trench. Shallow trench hastily dug before the battle to get troops further out into No Man’s Land without detection. This may be what my father called a ‘nam trench’?

We all bent our backs in the trench and the runner, I can see him now, ran along our backs, head and shoulders above the trench, exposing himself to the enemy, while shells kept bursting on either side of him.

The Germans trained their machine-gun fire into our trench (5). My hands got scratched with the barbed wire contraption getting caught in the sides of the nam trench (sic) (6). The situation got hopeless.  We were advanced beyond Gommecourt Wood and found it was no use carrying the chev de frieze any further (7). I got lost in the confusion of the bombing.

wiki Official_Photographs_taken_on_the_Front_in_France_-_A_German_front_line_trench_before_Gommecourt_(15560801016)
German Front Line Trench before Gommecourt. <www.en-wiki>

I got to where I believe was the point our Front Line faced the German enfilade trench I had sketched in the days before (8) There to my amazement I saw British soldiers lying close on the floor of the trench, like sardines in a tin – some dead and some dying with groans. 

A sergeant called out to me from a dugout“Come in here or you will soon be like those lying there.” To my lasting remorse I was forced to tread on the bodies of those poor men.  My right wrist was bleeding badly from a shrapnel wound and a chum called (Arthur) Venables*  (9) tied an emergency field dressing on it. I learned later that he was killed and I pray he may be rewarded in heaven.

My experiences before and during the Battle were terrible to me, but curious enough I felt serene until I was told to make for the First Field Dressing Station. I made my way in haste to get out of the trenches: full of our dead, all with tarpaulins and ground sheets over them.

Fonq-Church-painting.imgres
Fonquevillers Church of Our Lady. Watercolour. Adrian Hill. Imperial War Museum.

I stood waiting in the mouth of the trench near to Fonquevillers Church and the Dressing Station in the Crypt, and there I was interviewed by Padre T.Howard* (10)(whom I was to meet again, after the War, at Lichfield Theological College). 

I received treatment against tetanus, then it was a great relief, despite the cobbles that shook my wounds, to leave the Battle behind, and be sent by Ambulance to an open field to await the train which was to take us to Hospital.

Typical WW1 Motor Ambulance.
Typical WW1 Motor Ambulance. http://www.en-wiki.

I shall never forget seeing the wounded lying in the sunshine in that wide fieldIt was just as if so many washer-women had laid out their ‘whites’ on the ground to dry – men with wounded arms, legs and heads all bandaged up.

There on his horse sat the Colonel* (11), staring at the sorry sight. Then I saw, lying on the field, Alan Machin*, an old Grammar School Boy of QMS, Walsall (12).

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ELIZABETH HIBBETT WEBB
ELIZABETH HIBBETT WEBB

Pte Bertie Hibbett appears to have got further, than I first thought, across No Man’s Land before he was wounded. In his Memories he describes the British Front Line Trench opposite the German enfilade trench as full of dead & dying. He mentions German machine gun fire & enfilade fire. This was about 9.30 am. 2 hours after Zero hour accord. to S. Staffords War Diary. NB Being ‘beyond Gommecourt Wood’ is puzzling until one remembers the objective was The Z.

Gommecourt Village, Park & Wood today from the air. Fonquevillers bottom left. 1/5th S Staffs Assembly Trenches & 'The Z'  & 'Little Z' objective marked .'Aerial Photo:
Gommecourt Village, Park & Wood today from the air. Fonquevillers bottom left. 1/5th S Staffs Assembly Trenches & ‘The Z’  & ‘Little Z’ objective marked . ‘Aerial Photo:

That the 137th Brigade attack had failed was reported to Major General Sir Stuart Wortley at 8.55 am. 1st Wave 5th N. Staffs were in advanced trench. 2 Waves were in Old British Front Line (with Pte Bertie Hibbett wounded & Corp. Venables). The 6th North Staffs were stopped; if in German First Line then not supported.  Orders made to open artillery fire on whole of western edge of Gommecourt Wood.  At 9.33 am 5th N. Staffs were unable to move forward because of congestion in forward trenches. At 9.35 am 6th S. Staffs reported not enough men to continue attack.

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ARMY CHAPLAINS.  5,000 Chaplains served in WW1, many going straight from their parishes without training. 168 or more lost their lives. Their original role  was to take services & burials well away from the Battlefields. Increasingly in 1914-1918 War Chaplains felt compelled to serve on the Front Line, experiencing the full brutality of War. Burials of soldier’s pals, where they fell, was important for morale but extremely dangerous. The service would be a simple prayer taken from Revelation 14.13: I heard a voice from heaven saying: ‘Blessed are they that die in the Lord, even so saith the Spirit for they rest from their labours’.  See Hugh Pym BBC <http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides&gt;

(1) The Revd J.V. Wilson, C.F. used the term ‘Hospital’ in his FPO to Pte Bertie’s father, no doubt to re-assure him that his son was being well cared for. But this would be a reference to the very basic First Field Dressing Station in Fonquevillers Church Crypt  – or the Field Ambulance (stationery tent/ not vehicle) in a field away from the Front; where the wounded would have been collected from the whole of 46th Midland Division.

Pte Bertie’s train might have gone from Arras, in which case it is possible my father might have known the underground ‘Hospital’ in the tunnels below La Grande Place (where names of wounded soldiers are scratched on walls). Since he never mentioned this it is more likely to have been Bethune? It took a painful ‘one & a half days’ for him to arrive at a Hotel cum Hospital on the cliffs at Le Treport, near Rouen.

(2The Battle of the Somme extended from Fonquevillers/ Gommecourt in the north  – to beyond Mametz in the south/ i.e. not the whole of the Western Front.

(3) Pencil Sketch: After the Somme Battle, one lesson learned was that every soldier, not just Officers & N.C.Os, was given a maps of enemy trenches which he was expected to learn.  My father kept a copy of this drawing very carefully for 50 years. Sadly it went missing following a Toc H Exhibition in Skegness in 1960s. Reward to anyone who may know of its whereabouts. Size 5″ x 12″ approx . Please contact: <e.f.webb@btinternet.com > .

(4) Royal Leicester Regt. ‘Tiger’ Hindoostani Badge. Awarded 1825 for services in India. 

(5) Machine gun fire at approx. 9.25. See Staffords War Diary. 1st July 1916. (6) Nam’ trench? Maybe my father meant a ‘sap trench’/ a shallow trench dug hastily at night before a Charge to help men gain further ground across No Man’s Land without detection (in this case about a 1000 yards. 

(7) Cheval de frise: barbed wire entanglement nicknamed ‘knife rest’;(ref. medieval defence against cavaliers). Before a Charge, each soldier had to carry forward a piece of equipment from piles at entrance to trenches: e.g. wire cutters/ shovels/ – or these iron stakes. <https://WW1 revisited.com>.

(8) German Enfilade Fire: at approx 9.30 am. See previous 1st July Post.

(9) Padre Howard*: one of a number of Padres who comforted my father in extremity; whose faith & courage no doubt re-enforced his own sense of calling to the Anglican priesthood. (10) Corp. Arthur Venables*: See Pte Bertie’s Tribute ‘To Fallen Comrade’, Walsall Observer & S. Staffordshire Chronicle. 12th August 1916. Commemorated on Thiepval Memorial to Missing. 

(11Lt Col Richmond Raymer. Evidence that Col. Raymer, though wounded, was still on duty on horseback/ in command 1/5th S. Staffords. Major Adabie* ordered Major Lord 1/5th S Staffs ‘to find his wounded C.O Lt Col Raymer, to order an advance led by 1/5th Bn & supported by 2 companies of 5th Leicesters.

cellar-Coy-HQ-Fonq-www.iwm.orgmid
Company HQ Cellar, Fonquevillers. Louven Court Chateau.

This order issued at 2.30 pm:  ‘Add all details of previous waves from this morning’s attack to new 3rd wave. Take forward all Lewis Guns you can find.  Instruct first wave to take all men forward they find in the New Front Line. Officers and N.C.Os must reconnoitre with periscopes all gaps in our wire and in the hostile wire so as to be able to lead the men through.  

See Staffords War Diary, previous 1st July Post/ List of Casualties below/ & Alan MacDonald: ‘A Lack of Offensive Spirit’.

(12) 2/Lt Alan Machin*: wounded with a ‘Blighty’, died 1918 in UK/ influenza epidemic? Mentioned many times in Hibbett Letters.

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APPENDIX 3.  

1/5th Bn. SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE REGT. July 1st 1916.

LIST OF CASUALTIES.  ** Known to Pte Bertie Hibbett/ amongst original Walsall volunteers/ QMS Cadet Force, 1914. NB. recognition of Shell Shock.

Officers Killed: Capt F. Eglington.

Missing, Believed Killed: 2Lt G.T. R. Knowles. Missing: Lt J. F. Thorne; 2/Lt F. A. Fawcett; 2/Lt H.Allen** (Commemorated Lochnagar Crater by QMSchool, Walsall, 2016) ; 2/ Lt T.R. Sanger**; 2/Lt S. J. Ellison.

Wounded. Lt Col.R. R. Raymer**; 2/Lt. L.A. Evans; 2/Lt H. G. Cozens**; 2/Lt L. W. C. Capsey; 2/Lt J. R. Cartwright; 2/Lt E. J. U. Turner; 2/Lt A.E. Machin**.

Capt. Wistance ()
Major. W. Wistance.

Wounded (Shell Shock). Major W. A. Wistance**; Capt. C.Lister**.

Other Ranks: Killed 12. Missing 23. Wounded & Missing 1 (Sgt Sydney Hibbett. Commemorated Lochnagar Crater by QMSchool, Walsall, 2016).

Wounded 105 (Pte Bertie Hibbett). Wounded (Shell Shock) 20. Total: 178.

SUMMARY OF CASUALTIES JULY 1916: Officers Killed 1. Missing, Believed Killed 1; Missing 5; Wounded 7; Wounded (Shell Shock) 2.

Other Ranks. Killed 13; Missing 23; Wounded & Missing 1. Wounded 108; Wounded accidentally 1; Wounded (Self inflicted) 1. Slightly Wounded, remained at Duty 4; Wounded (Shell Shock) 20; Injured, remained with Battn. for light duty. 1.

Signed: J. Lamond. Capt Adjt for Major (Lord) Comdg 1/5th Bn South Staffordshire Regiment.

NEXT POST: 9th July 1916. 

1st July 1916: BATTLE OF SOMME: ATTACK ON GOMMECOURT WOOD, VILLAGE & PARK.

South Staffordshire Badgee1/5th SOUTH STAFFORDS WAR DIARY

HUMBERCAMP.  29th June Thur: In Rest Billets. Y1 Day. [Editor: originally ‘Z Day’ / bad weather caused delay of two days.]

30th June.  HUMBERCAMP.  In Rest Billets. Y2 Day. The Battalion paraded at 11.30 pm to proceed to trenches to carry out operations against hostile positions in GOMMECOURT WOOD, VILLAGE and PARK.  

SUMMARY of CASUALTIES IN JUNE 1916: OFFICERS: Killed 1. WOUNDED 2OTHER RANKS: Killed 14. Wounded: 37. (1 returned to duty). SHELL SHOCK: 7 . (4 returned to duty). TOTAL CASUALTIES: OFFICERS: 3 (1 Self Inflicted Wound). OTHER RANKS: 58.

Signed: J. LAMOND  Capt & Adjt. Cmdg 1/5th South Staffordshire Regiment.                      *****************************

Staffordshire Regt. Brooch.THE HISTORY OF THE SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE REGIMENT.

July 1st 1916.  Battle of the Somme.

137th Infantry Brigade was ordered to attack Gommecourt Wood and Village at a point in front of the British line, 4 miles north of Beaumont Hamel looking towards Bapaume. The Infantry Brigade was ordered to commence at 7.30 in 4 waves.

After intense barrage from our artillery, covered by smoke barrage, the men advanced to the enemy’s first line.  It was penetrated by ‘D’ Company of 1/6th S. Staffs.  Other companies were not so successful.  Intense artillery fire plastered the attack.  Intense shrapnel barrage was directed by enemy observers, as it followed our troops as they moved forward. Other small parties were able to enter the enemy’s lines but couldn’t obtain a permanent footing there. Others were held up by the enemy’s wire where it had not been so well cut. ’

‘From dawn to long after noon our men endured this awful fire, but the ground penetrated could not be held and by evening the brigade was back in the old trenches.’

gommecourt-map-1916
GOMMECOURT: The British Front Line (blue) & German Front Line (red). 1st July 1916. 1/5th S. Staffords’ Objective: A B & C in Gommecourt Wood (centre right) from Assembly Trenches (bottom left). ‘The Z‘ is marked above A B & C Objectives.Red Arrows indicate oblique/ enfilade fire.

South Staffordshire Badgee1/5th SOUTH STAFFORDS WAR DIARY.

1st July Sat: FONQUEVILLERS. 2 AM. Battalion proceeded to trenches and took up position in Assembly Trenches prior to operations. 7.30 AM Operations against GOMMECOURT WOOD and VILLAGE. See Appendix 1. Editor: Attack on northern flank of German 2nd Guard Reserve Division (under General Freiherr von Subkind-Schwend) and Baden Infantry Regt. 170 (BIR) of 52nd Division (under Generalleutnant Karl von Barries).

2nd July Sun: 3.30 AM. Left Assembly Trenches and occupied Corps Line Trenches 1 mile EAST of SOUASTRE. 12.30 PM Marched to SOUASTRE. 8.PM. Marched to BERLES-AU-BOIS [Ed: a commune 7.8 km (4.5 miles) from Fonquevillers, beyond Monchy-au-Bois].

APPENDIX 1.

NARRATIVE OF EVENTS DURING OPERATIONS ON 1.7.1916.

The Battalion was in position in the Assembly Trenches by 4.30 AM.

All waves moved forward as ordered. 2nd wave ‘A’ ‘B’ and ‘F’ Bombing Parties reached the German Front Line with very few casualties and commenced bombing in accordance with programme. 3rd wave ‘C’ and ‘G’ Bombing Parties. Only ‘G’ Party got into the German Front line.  ‘C’ party did not get beyond the enemy wire. Only two men were left, the remainder were struck by shrapnel.

NO MAN'S LAND, CEMETERY FONQUEVILLERS:  WOODEN CROSS inscribed: " Unknown Sergeant, S. Stafford". Photo: Basil Hibbett 1920.
NO MAN’S LAND, CEMETERY FONQUEVILLERS:  WOODEN CROSS inscribed: ” Unknown Sergeant, S. Stafford”. Photo: Basil Hibbett 1920. These burials were later moved to Gommecourt Wood New Cemetery in the early 1920s.

Serj. SydneyEditor: Serjeant SYDNEY HIBBETT was most likely leading his platoon in the 1st or 2nd Wave. He was reported to have fallen in No Man’s Land, probably in the first half hour. Someone found him severely wounded and gave him a drop of water, but could not stay. Later in the day he was found to have died from his injuries. His body lost its identity in further shelling. It would have been a few days before it was safe to bury him where he fell, with a simple prayer by a Chaplain, and a Wooden Cross placed over him with the inscription ‘Unknown Serjeant, S. Stafford’. 

4th wave ‘D’ and ‘E’ Bombing Parties were held up at the enemy wire, and retired to a hollow in the ground about 50x from the German wire. Our detail of the 5th wave was impeded by the Lewis Gun teams of the 6th South in the Old Front Line.  The Officer Commanding decided to pass them and went forward to the New Front Line, where he found 1 officer and about 20 other ranks 6th South of the 2nd wave, who stated they had had to retire. He sent this party forward, deployed his portion of the 5th wave and some of the 6th and advanced until compelled to halt owing to casualties just in front of the German barbed wire.

The left platoon of our detail of the 6th Wave report that portions of the 3rd and 4th waves 6th South were still in the New Front Line Trench and blocked their further advance during the remainder of the operation. [Ed: New Front Line Trench dug during night/s before Z Day to get troops further across ‘unusually wide’ No Man’s Land at Zero Hour]

The Officer Commanding our detail of the 7th Wave Capt. Eglington*, deployed and advanced over the New Front Line Trench, and about 20 yards from the German wire this officer was killed. No further progress of any note was made.

The 8th Wave did not advance beyond the Old British Front Line.

The Reserve Company was held up by 3 parties of R.Es in NOTTINGHAM STREET from 7.40 AM until noon, about 500 yards from the firing line.

About 5 minutes after Zero [Ed: i.e. 7.40 am] the Communication Trenches NOTTINGHAM STREET – SEDGELEY STREET – and DERBY DYKE were heavily shelled with 105 mm H.E. inflicting several casualties on the 6th and 7th waves damaging these trenches and thus impeded their advance.

Bertie in UniformEditorPte Bertie Hibbett was severely wounded in Derby Dyke about this time, having lost his way in the confusion of the bombing. His Walsall pal, Corp. Arthur Venables*, (killed later that day) saved his life by dressing his wound but then had to move on. Forced to tread on the dead & the dying, Bertie had to make his way back against the oncoming waves – – to the First Field Dressing Station in the Crypt of Fonquevillers Church.

The enemy opened fire with machine guns, one in FORD trench, and one in their first line parapet on GOMMECOURT ROAD on our advancing waves.

The New Front Line trench was under oblique machine gun fire from the direction of The Z till about 9.30 AM. The guns then moved and enfilade fire was brought to bear on that trench. [Ed: see arrows on Gommecourt Front Line Diagram above]

The Old Front Line and retrenchment was under heavy 77 mm gun fire during the early part of the operation. The batteries were firing from behind ESSARTS. [Ed: (Essarts, Boucres, a commune (3.3 km) 2 miles away from Fonquevillers, towards Arras].

The SUCRERIE was hit by our own shells (4.5 howitzer) about 11.0 AM. [Ed: The Sucrerie: foundation of old Sugar Factory in No Man’s Land, in front of Gommecourt Wood New Cemetery.]

About 2.0 PM the shelling of our sector diminished.

Enemy barraged our Front Line and Communication Trenches with 77 mm and 105 mm from 3.30 PM to 4.30 PM.

In addition to orders issued by Major Abadie* for the attack timed for 3.30 PM. I issued the following orders to the battalion.

Add all details of previous waves from this morning’s attack to new 3rd wave. Take forward all Lewis Guns you can find.  Instruct first wave to take all men forward they find in the New Front Line. Officers and N.C.Os must reconnoitre with periscopes all gaps in our wire and in the hostile wire so as to be able to lead the men through’.

Issued 2.30 PM.  Signed: J. LAMOND.  Capt & Adjt. 1/5th South Staffordshire Regt.

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ELIZABETH HIBBETT WEBB
ELIZABETH HIBBETT WEBB

PROBLEMS FACING ATTACKING TROOPS. Trench System Diagram  <https://www.educ-sparticus.com&gt;

A Diversionary tactic, to draw German troops away from  the french Army attack on Verdun, the 1/5th & 1/6th Staffordshire Regiment’s Gommecourt attack was doomed to failure from the start. On 24th June, a 1/5th N. Staffords soldier, captured & injured, gave the Germans details of the British Attack under interrogation.
Trench System educ.-sparticus.

Gommecourt Village (9.3 miles from Albert) is built on ‘4 flat-topped ridges in shape of a flattened X (the ends pointing towards Essarts, Rossignol Wood, west side of Hebuterne & eastern fringe of Fonquevillers)’. The German Front Line on the north-west side of this Gommecourt Salient overlooked 2,000 yards of the British Front Lines.  British Assembly Trenches were in very poor condition from rain & shelling. Communication telegraph wires & substituted alignment tapes were cut by German bombing. Troops were impeded by smoke screen & deep mud in an ‘unusually wide’ No Man’s Land.

 Germans emerged from very deep dugouts (electric light & underground kitchens) completely unscathed when British barrage ceased. Troops were caught in enfilade/ crossfire from both ‘The Z’ and the corner of Gommecourt Salient/ Gommecourt Road. Very few Staffords got beyond the wire into the German Front Line Trench. It was a very hot day.

For further detail see: A Lack of Offensive Spirit. Alan MacDonald /website <https:// en-wikipedia.org /Attack on Gommecourt Salient> & many other sites.

NEXT POST: 1ST JULY 1916: Fonquevillers Church Crypt: First Field Dressing Station & Army Chaplains.  

NB: The 1st July posts have been delayed by my visit to the Battlefields at Gommecourt & the grave of my uncle Serjeabt Sydney Hibbett ‘Believed to be Buried’ in Gommecourt Wood New Cemetery.

I was delighted to meet and exchange stories with so many people on 1st July – 4th July: French , Belgian, English, American & Canadian. If there are any inaccuracies in this post I would be very pleased to hear from you. EFW. 7th July 2016.