Tag Archives: Sniper Atkins 1916.



                                                                                     July 1st 1916.

I have just seen your son Bertie in Hospital (1). He is wounded in the right wrist, but otherwise is alright & I think you needn’t worry about him. He is being sent on to another Hospital so don’t write till you hear from him.

He just saw Sidney for a few moments this morning. He was alright.  I hope you will have Bertie back soon.

J. V. Wilson C.F. 1/ 6 South Staffs.



The Revd. Arthur H. Hibbett.
The Revd. Arthur H. Hibbett. 1960s.

‘The Men of the North Midland Division of Territorials did not turn their backs on the enemy. On a large board, posted against a wall of the ruined Church at Fonquevillers, was printed in large letters: ‘TO BERLIN – UP TRAFFIC ONLY’.

Up Traffic Only Fonqu
Fonquevillers Church. Up Traffic Only. Pen & ink sketch. Arthur H. Hibbett. 1918?

‘The climax of my war experience came on the first of July, 1916, when the Battle of The Somme began in earnest.  We learnt later that the whole of the British Army was to advance that day (2).The ‘Mad Staffords’ of the 46th Division went forward to capture Gommecourt.

The first of July 1916 was a bright, sunny day.  We had been allowed to buy biscuits in Fonquevillers village at the back of the lines.  I bought some, calledPetit Beurre‘, and they came in usefulWhenever we buy them now they always remind me of the time I was waiting to go Over the Top’.

We had been waiting in our trenches, facing the Germans, for many weeks before the Charge. During that time I was detailed off to do an official drawing of the German Front Line, showing Gommecourt Village and Wood with the Sunken Road beyond, the German enfilade trench and with all the trees as exact as I could.  This was my small contribution in preparation for the ‘Big Push’. I had the use of a periscope, and was disguised as a sandbag in case I had to look over the top of the trench to see the formation of the trees and the trenches more clearly (3).

Illustration for 'Sniper Atkins' doggerel by Arthur H. Hibbett May/Ju ne 1916.
Illustration for ‘Sniper Atkins’ doggerel by Arthur H. Hibbett. May/ Ju ne 1916.

It was while I was making this sketch that I was amazed to see some very old German soldiers, with long white beards, using mechanical excavators in their front line, and making great loads of earth fly up in the air.

I also spotted a dead cow’s head, which I presumed was used as a German sniper’s post. I feel pretty sure that it was from there that our parapet was peppered with German bullets whenever I attempted to put up my periscope.  “Keep away from Hibbett and his periscope !” was the general cry.

What terrified me more than the enemy shells and bullets was the sight of our men allowed to drink over much. It was a mistake to have given our men leave to drink alcohol before the Big Push. Some of them, delirious with too much to drink, were throwing mud at each other and I was afraid that they would throw mud at meIt was sights such as these that have made me keep off beer ever since.

Leicester Regt badge
Royal Leicester Regt. Tiger Badge.

I got wounded on that day. I was going forward in the trenches towards the front lines.  A Leicester runner, hastening to deliver an urgent message, his voice competing with the noise of gun-fire, came shouting from the rear: “Bend your backs, me lads! Bend your backs!  The Tiger’s face doesn’t turn away from the enemy!” (4).

Sap-Trench. Shallow trench hastily dug before the battle to get troops further out into No Man’s Land without detection. This may be what my father called a ‘nam trench’?

We all bent our backs in the trench and the runner, I can see him now, ran along our backs, head and shoulders above the trench, exposing himself to the enemy, while shells kept bursting on either side of him.

The Germans trained their machine-gun fire into our trench (5). My hands got scratched with the barbed wire contraption getting caught in the sides of the nam trench (sic) (6). The situation got hopeless.  We were advanced beyond Gommecourt Wood and found it was no use carrying the chev de frieze any further (7). I got lost in the confusion of the bombing.

wiki Official_Photographs_taken_on_the_Front_in_France_-_A_German_front_line_trench_before_Gommecourt_(15560801016)
German Front Line Trench before Gommecourt. <www.en-wiki>

I got to where I believe was the point our Front Line faced the German enfilade trench I had sketched in the days before (8) There to my amazement I saw British soldiers lying close on the floor of the trench, like sardines in a tin – some dead and some dying with groans. 

A sergeant called out to me from a dugout“Come in here or you will soon be like those lying there.” To my lasting remorse I was forced to tread on the bodies of those poor men.  My right wrist was bleeding badly from a shrapnel wound and a chum called (Arthur) Venables*  (9) tied an emergency field dressing on it. I learned later that he was killed and I pray he may be rewarded in heaven.

My experiences before and during the Battle were terrible to me, but curious enough I felt serene until I was told to make for the First Field Dressing Station. I made my way in haste to get out of the trenches: full of our dead, all with tarpaulins and ground sheets over them.

Fonquevillers Church of Our Lady. Watercolour. Adrian Hill. Imperial War Museum.

I stood waiting in the mouth of the trench near to Fonquevillers Church and the Dressing Station in the Crypt, and there I was interviewed by Padre T.Howard* (10)(whom I was to meet again, after the War, at Lichfield Theological College). 

I received treatment against tetanus, then it was a great relief, despite the cobbles that shook my wounds, to leave the Battle behind, and be sent by Ambulance to an open field to await the train which was to take us to Hospital.

Typical WW1 Motor Ambulance.
Typical WW1 Motor Ambulance. http://www.en-wiki.

I shall never forget seeing the wounded lying in the sunshine in that wide fieldIt was just as if so many washer-women had laid out their ‘whites’ on the ground to dry – men with wounded arms, legs and heads all bandaged up.

There on his horse sat the Colonel* (11), staring at the sorry sight. Then I saw, lying on the field, Alan Machin*, an old Grammar School Boy of QMS, Walsall (12).



Pte Bertie Hibbett appears to have got further, than I first thought, across No Man’s Land before he was wounded. In his Memories he describes the British Front Line Trench opposite the German enfilade trench as full of dead & dying. He mentions German machine gun fire & enfilade fire. This was about 9.30 am. 2 hours after Zero hour accord. to S. Staffords War Diary. NB Being ‘beyond Gommecourt Wood’ is puzzling until one remembers the objective was The Z.

Gommecourt Village, Park & Wood today from the air. Fonquevillers bottom left. 1/5th S Staffs Assembly Trenches & 'The Z'  & 'Little Z' objective marked .'Aerial Photo:
Gommecourt Village, Park & Wood today from the air. Fonquevillers bottom left. 1/5th S Staffs Assembly Trenches & ‘The Z’  & ‘Little Z’ objective marked . ‘Aerial Photo:

That the 137th Brigade attack had failed was reported to Major General Sir Stuart Wortley at 8.55 am. 1st Wave 5th N. Staffs were in advanced trench. 2 Waves were in Old British Front Line (with Pte Bertie Hibbett wounded & Corp. Venables). The 6th North Staffs were stopped; if in German First Line then not supported.  Orders made to open artillery fire on whole of western edge of Gommecourt Wood.  At 9.33 am 5th N. Staffs were unable to move forward because of congestion in forward trenches. At 9.35 am 6th S. Staffs reported not enough men to continue attack.


ARMY CHAPLAINS.  5,000 Chaplains served in WW1, many going straight from their parishes without training. 168 or more lost their lives. Their original role  was to take services & burials well away from the Battlefields. Increasingly in 1914-1918 War Chaplains felt compelled to serve on the Front Line, experiencing the full brutality of War. Burials of soldier’s pals, where they fell, was important for morale but extremely dangerous. The service would be a simple prayer taken from Revelation 14.13: I heard a voice from heaven saying: ‘Blessed are they that die in the Lord, even so saith the Spirit for they rest from their labours’.  See Hugh Pym BBC <http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides&gt;

(1) The Revd J.V. Wilson, C.F. used the term ‘Hospital’ in his FPO to Pte Bertie’s father, no doubt to re-assure him that his son was being well cared for. But this would be a reference to the very basic First Field Dressing Station in Fonquevillers Church Crypt  – or the Field Ambulance (stationery tent/ not vehicle) in a field away from the Front; where the wounded would have been collected from the whole of 46th Midland Division.

Pte Bertie’s train might have gone from Arras, in which case it is possible my father might have known the underground ‘Hospital’ in the tunnels below La Grande Place (where names of wounded soldiers are scratched on walls). Since he never mentioned this it is more likely to have been Bethune? It took a painful ‘one & a half days’ for him to arrive at a Hotel cum Hospital on the cliffs at Le Treport, near Rouen.

(2The Battle of the Somme extended from Fonquevillers/ Gommecourt in the north  – to beyond Mametz in the south/ i.e. not the whole of the Western Front.

(3) Pencil Sketch: After the Somme Battle, one lesson learned was that every soldier, not just Officers & N.C.Os, was given a maps of enemy trenches which he was expected to learn.  My father kept a copy of this drawing very carefully for 50 years. Sadly it went missing following a Toc H Exhibition in Skegness in 1960s. Reward to anyone who may know of its whereabouts. Size 5″ x 12″ approx . Please contact: <e.f.webb@btinternet.com > .

(4) Royal Leicester Regt. ‘Tiger’ Hindoostani Badge. Awarded 1825 for services in India. 

(5) Machine gun fire at approx. 9.25. See Staffords War Diary. 1st July 1916. (6) Nam’ trench? Maybe my father meant a ‘sap trench’/ a shallow trench dug hastily at night before a Charge to help men gain further ground across No Man’s Land without detection (in this case about a 1000 yards. 

(7) Cheval de frise: barbed wire entanglement nicknamed ‘knife rest’;(ref. medieval defence against cavaliers). Before a Charge, each soldier had to carry forward a piece of equipment from piles at entrance to trenches: e.g. wire cutters/ shovels/ – or these iron stakes. <https://WW1 revisited.com>.

(8) German Enfilade Fire: at approx 9.30 am. See previous 1st July Post.

(9) Padre Howard*: one of a number of Padres who comforted my father in extremity; whose faith & courage no doubt re-enforced his own sense of calling to the Anglican priesthood. (10) Corp. Arthur Venables*: See Pte Bertie’s Tribute ‘To Fallen Comrade’, Walsall Observer & S. Staffordshire Chronicle. 12th August 1916. Commemorated on Thiepval Memorial to Missing. 

(11Lt Col Richmond Raymer. Evidence that Col. Raymer, though wounded, was still on duty on horseback/ in command 1/5th S. Staffords. Major Adabie* ordered Major Lord 1/5th S Staffs ‘to find his wounded C.O Lt Col Raymer, to order an advance led by 1/5th Bn & supported by 2 companies of 5th Leicesters.

Company HQ Cellar, Fonquevillers. Louven Court Chateau.

This order issued at 2.30 pm:  ‘Add all details of previous waves from this morning’s attack to new 3rd wave. Take forward all Lewis Guns you can find.  Instruct first wave to take all men forward they find in the New Front Line. Officers and N.C.Os must reconnoitre with periscopes all gaps in our wire and in the hostile wire so as to be able to lead the men through.  

See Staffords War Diary, previous 1st July Post/ List of Casualties below/ & Alan MacDonald: ‘A Lack of Offensive Spirit’.

(12) 2/Lt Alan Machin*: wounded with a ‘Blighty’, died 1918 in UK/ influenza epidemic? Mentioned many times in Hibbett Letters.



1/5th Bn. SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE REGT. July 1st 1916.

LIST OF CASUALTIES.  ** Known to Pte Bertie Hibbett/ amongst original Walsall volunteers/ QMS Cadet Force, 1914. NB. recognition of Shell Shock.

Officers Killed: Capt F. Eglington.

Missing, Believed Killed: 2Lt G.T. R. Knowles. Missing: Lt J. F. Thorne; 2/Lt F. A. Fawcett; 2/Lt H.Allen** (Commemorated Lochnagar Crater by QMSchool, Walsall, 2016) ; 2/ Lt T.R. Sanger**; 2/Lt S. J. Ellison.

Wounded. Lt Col.R. R. Raymer**; 2/Lt. L.A. Evans; 2/Lt H. G. Cozens**; 2/Lt L. W. C. Capsey; 2/Lt J. R. Cartwright; 2/Lt E. J. U. Turner; 2/Lt A.E. Machin**.

Capt. Wistance ()
Major. W. Wistance.

Wounded (Shell Shock). Major W. A. Wistance**; Capt. C.Lister**.

Other Ranks: Killed 12. Missing 23. Wounded & Missing 1 (Sgt Sydney Hibbett. Commemorated Lochnagar Crater by QMSchool, Walsall, 2016).

Wounded 105 (Pte Bertie Hibbett). Wounded (Shell Shock) 20. Total: 178.

SUMMARY OF CASUALTIES JULY 1916: Officers Killed 1. Missing, Believed Killed 1; Missing 5; Wounded 7; Wounded (Shell Shock) 2.

Other Ranks. Killed 13; Missing 23; Wounded & Missing 1. Wounded 108; Wounded accidentally 1; Wounded (Self inflicted) 1. Slightly Wounded, remained at Duty 4; Wounded (Shell Shock) 20; Injured, remained with Battn. for light duty. 1.

Signed: J. Lamond. Capt Adjt for Major (Lord) Comdg 1/5th Bn South Staffordshire Regiment.

NEXT POST: 9th July 1916. 


South Staffordshire Badgee1/5th SOUTH STAFFORDS WAR DIARY


18th May Thur. 12.45 am to 1.30 am: Enemy fired 18 canister bombs (1) which fell between ‘A’   Company’s advanced posts and company Headquarters. All communication trenches damaged. 1.45-2.15 am 12 canister bombs fell between No 4 and 5 posts. No damage. 10.15 pm – 10.45 pm 12 canister bombs fell between No 4 and 2 Posts. LIVERY STREET damaged (2).

Sherwood Foresters (Notts & Derby) Regt. badge.
Sherwood Foresters (Notts & Derby) Regt. Badge. <http://www.northeastmedals.co.uk&gt;

19th May Fri. 8.30 pm: 6 canister bombs fell between No.1 and No 2 posts. No damage. Our Artillery retaliated on GOMMECOURT PARK.  Enemy whizz-banged (3) in vicinity of HeadquartersRelieved by 1/5th SHERWOOD FORESTERS (4). Marched to billets at SOUASTRE (5).

20th May Sat: SOUASTRE. Marched to new billets at LUCHEUX (6). Arrived at 2.0 am. 

21st May Sun: LUCHEUX. In Rest Billets. Battalion Training.


Bertie in UniformPte BERTIE HIBBETT: A Little Book of Words & DoingsNew draft of officers. Saw Lieut. Sanger* with whom I had a nice chat; he was  later over No 2 Platoon. Illustrated Sniper Atkins and substituted a verse about the Kaiser in place of ‘Atkins loves his pal the rifle’ (7).

Sniper Atkins Indides pages
Sniper Atkins: Top right verse: ‘Tommy has a lucky ‘go’ His sharp eye spots the Kaiser. Tommy says: “Just arf a mo” Take this to make you wiser’. 1 shot. 2 shots. 3 shots.’  NB Three camouflaged German snipers with rifles in the tree.

LETTER to MARIE NEAL HIBBETT, 95 Foden Rd Walsall.

‘. . . among the sundry and manifold changes of the world. . .’ (8). ‘I have yet many things to say unto you’ (9).

Collect and Gospel for:– 4th Sunday after Easter. May 21/ 16

My Very Dear Mother,

How very, very sorry indeed I felt, when I read your letter (in with Ida’s) dealing with the manner Sydney behaved.  Yes Sydney is often thoughtless & I think it is rotten to have divided affection.  I say ‘Mother the Queen of the Home – Ist A1. Then if you like —someone else A2,  but to me Dad & Mum are equally A1.  ‘Ah wee’, as the French say, the first few lines of Chapter XXII are disappointing. Yet a Mother can forgive & that will turn the story beautiful.

The weather is excellent, fine & sunny & of course I am wondering what sort of Sunday you are having.  Oh No! Jones* left the letter untouched, I arrived in time. I did not understand the matter about the photo, I overlooked that & was more interested in the other news in the letter. Jones* is going to give me Sydney’s watch today. I shall try & get it before tea-time just for curiosity in case you think of it in conversation during tea hour.  I told you before that I have written to the 3rd Field Ambulance.  I have received very nice letters during the week from Miss Foster* (one of hers was returned to her).


Miss Bore* sent a PC & letter & Pearson’s Magazine (10) to the Hospital on the 5th May.  I got it yesterday. [Ed. i.e. 17th May].

Pearson's Magazine Oct 1915.
Oct. 1915.
Sir Arthur Pearson
Sir Arthur Pearson. 






Jolly old Vernon wrote a nice long letter from Ripon, No 6 Coy. No 1 Hut, No 3 Camp, Northern Command Depot (11).  Perhaps you would like to write to him.  You told me in one of your letters he was not any better & that he had been sent to Ripon.  His brother Norman* is Editor of the Junior School Magazine. I am patronising his office by sending him my doggerel  ‘Sniper Atkins’ – Illustrated.  You may think I am vain to send it, but my idea of giving them pleasure exceeds the former idea of vanity & I thought if the C.O. commended it (& every Tommy I have shown it to has been highly amused & many have suggested that I should send the poem to some paper) that I should.  I conclude that I humbly  beg the Editor, Mr. N. Evans* to give me his opinion as to whether my doggerel is worthy of being published in his respected School paper. 

Sydney once told me not to be so ‘gushing’ in my letters to him, & about him at Home. But Vernon is worse to me than I was with regard to Sydney.  He apparently has changed right round.  In spite of the old saying  that we love one another more when parted.  I think Vernon will remain true now (this is between you & me Mum). 

Going back to ‘Sniper Atkins’ again.  I may say that I have made an Illustrated Copy for you Mum first, but should you discover that someone else has a copy before you, it will be because I wrote it on paper to fit an envelope.  This size notepaper will not go into a ‘green’ envelope without folding.

Doesn’t Arthur Brown* look old in the Observer? & I didn’t know he was Sergt.  On leaving the Batt. he only had 2 stripes showing. Of course he was once Acting Orderly Sergeant. Well, I looked over & over again at the photos but could not recognise Brown until I began to read the names underneath.

Tommy's Cooker.
Tommy’s Cooker.

This morning I received the Refill for the Boots Cooker. I have noticed that the labels always come & do not get torn off.  This reminds me that I made a delicious mess tin of coffee for supper with that you sent me; Cliff Hackett* was only too willing to give me ‘du lieu (12). Cyril Hinde* returned from Leave a day or so ago. Yesterday I went & talked with him in the field by the huts.  He wishes me to say that he was sorry he could not find time to see you.

I am afraid my Sunday letter is not altogether a success. I cannot write properly today somehow, this being a ‘green’. I may enquire of you if that Refill was rather expensive, & if I have asked you for anything that taxes your pocket?  But the advantage of the Refill comes when you send anything to be made into hot drinks & there are no fires to be had; also when our tea & bacon go cold or if we wish to make Welsh Rare Bit. 

Oh I won’t arf make ye larf (at least I’ll try my best) in my next letter, but my sketches would not be Sundayfied if I enclosed them with this.  I am getting quite a Rival of Bairnsfather and what two tasks have appeared at first  incapable of accomplishment have both come out successful to the commendation of all.  I have sent Field PCs to all those who wrote last week.  I must not forget to tell you I had a letter from Mrs Hurst* today & she told me of her meeting with you & Ida on Monday. Her letter, curious enough, was dated  May 17th.

I hope poor Sydney had a Happy Birthday and got your parcels safely.  I well remember last year how I smoked his health from a pipe for the 1st time and how the Overends sent him a cake & toffees etc.

Talking about a pipe, you need not send me anothercertainly of course not.  I am so sorry Ida’s cigarettes have also gone astray.  But there seems to be hope after having Miss Bore’s letter & Harold’s parcels from there (13).

searchGoing to hear Mr Darling* preach at Streetly this evening ? (14).

Aren’t these large buttercups (from the trenches)?

Best love to all,  Bertie.



According to 8th Sherwood Foresters this part of the Line at Fonquevillers was reported to be ‘about the quietest on the whole of the Western Front’.  For the 1/5th South Staffords, it must have been a very welcome relief after the traumas of Vimy Ridge. Apart from the bombardment of 18th & 19th May, many ‘A Quiet Day’ enabled Pte Bertie Hibbett to lose himself in  his ‘two tasks’  – writing his Sniper Atkins doggerel and illustrating it in a way that he hoped would make people laugh. He recognised that it was not ‘Sundayfied’ – not really in keeping with Christian values even when read ironically.  It makes me recall my question as a child of how many people my father had killed in the War –  & his reply that he thought he ‘might have killed one’!

My father’s growing maturity is seen in his attempt to resolve misunderstandings between his brother Sydney & his Mother – and his happiness in resolving those between himself & his best pal Vernon, through their experience of war. 

Minenwerfer (mine launcher’/ short range mortar.

(1) Canister bombs: fired from German trench mortars or minewerfersexploded ‘with devastating effect causing almost visible shock-waves through the earth. . . very slow moving through  the air. . . possible to watch bomb as it approached, turning end over end’ as it fell – but its ‘unnerving tendency to swerve at end of flight’ made direction of escape a matter of guess work. Alan MacDonald: A Lack of Offensive Spirit?

Whizz bangs Concert Poster Dec. 1916.
Whizz Bangs’ Concert Poster. Dec. 1916.

2) Livery Street: communication trench leading to Front Line at Fonquevillers. Other names: Stafford Avenue, Lincoln Lane, Leicester Street, Derby Dyke, Roberts Avenue, Rotten Row, Regence Street, Raymond Avenue, Crawlboys Lane. All needed extensive repair before the ‘Big Push‘ to come.

(3) Whizz-bang: Tommy’s slang for light shells/ named for sound made when fired from smaller calibre field guns.

(4) Sherwood Foresters (Notts & Derby) Regt. 1881: Pte Bertie Hibbett was attached when 1/5th Staffords went to Egypt, Dec 1915/ Jan 1916.

(5) Souastre: small village, Pas-en Artois, over exposed ridge, 2 miles west of Fonquevillers/ damaged. (6) Lucheux: medieval town in Picardie, 18 miles SW of Arras. 12th cent Church & 15th cent Chateaux with moat. Relatively undamaged. See Map: Hibbett Letters 10th May,1916.

(7) Sniper Atkins: (not yet established whether Express & Star or QMS School Magazine published it). Text:  Sniper Atkins. Composed by a Sniper.

Sniping Allemands All day long To the tune of British guns. Cooly sniping with A song, Sending greetings to the Huns. I shot 2 shots 3 shots.  Sniper Tommy spots a Bosche And gains a ripping goal And he sees him dive – splosh! Down his muddy hole. I shot etc.

Placing five rounds in tin can Then another up the spout Tommy spies another man So gives the Bosche an awful clout. Tommy has a lucky ‘go’ His sharp eye spots the Kaiser. Tommy say Just ‘arf a Mo’ Take this to make you wiser. I shot 2 shots 3 shots etc.

Atkins with his glasses spies A Jerry working party. Keenly marks it with his eyes Just ‘Wait & See’ me hearty. I shot etc. Opponent snipers in some trees Little knowing of their fate, When Tommy snipes at what he sees They’ll sing no more their hymn of hate. 1 Shot 2 shots 3 shots etc.

Atkins aims at a machine gun & hits the Hun behind it. Oh! my word what jolly fun It fairly makes his sides split. I shot 2 shots 3 shots.

(8) Collect for 4th Sunday after Easter. Book of Common Prayer 1662: O Almighty God, who alone canst order the unruly wills and affections of sinful man; Grant unto thy people that they may love the things which thou commandest & desire that which thou dost promise; that so amongst the sundry and manifold changes of the world, our hearts may surely there be fixed where true joys may be found. Through Christ our Lord(9) Gospel of St John 16.12-13: quotation continues: ‘When the Spirit of truth is come, the Spirit will guide you into all truth’. 

(10) Pearson’s Magazine: founded 1896 by Sir Cyril Arthur Pearson, blind newspaper magnate, 1866-1921. Founded Daily Express. Founded St Dunstan’s for soldiers blinded in WW1 (now Blind Veterans UK). Published short stories/articles on literature, arts/ politics of ‘socialist bent/ advertisements for patent medicines & ‘get rich quick’ schemes/ first to publish a cross-word.

(11) Northern Command Depot Ripon: for Service/ Labour  Units. Also for re-habilitation of soldiers too fit for Convalescent Camp but not yet fit enough to return to their Unit/ the Front.

(12) ‘du lieu’ ‘in the place of’: Cliff Hackett* had given him hot water earlier in week.(13) No 3 Field Ambulance/ Hospital where Pte Bertie went to rest his trench foot and shattered nerves after Vimy Ridge.

All Saints Streetly Staffordshire.
Church of All Saints Streetly.

(14Church of All Saints, Streetly: built 1908. 6 miles north of Birmingham near Aldridge & Sutton Coldfield. Named from Icknield Street /Roman Road.


NEXT POST: 24th May 1916.